Economists Do It With Models

Warning: “graphic” content…

Bookmark and Share
Good News For Economists And Libertarians, Bad News For Mr. Ed…

December 1st, 2011 · 152 Comments
Markets · Policy

Q: What do selling kidneys, tossing dwarfs, and eating horses have in common?

A: I don’t know- let’s ask Professor Al Roth.

Unfair. Undignified. Inappropriate, unprofessional, distasteful—and most of all, repugnant.

To the wonder and surprise of Alvin E. Roth, a Harvard economist, these harsh words are often hoisted to describe an important task of his: designing and building new markets. As Roth writes in a new working paper, he and fellow economists have found themselves handicapped by a problem just as real as any technological barrier or requirement of incentives and efficiency: the downright distaste that some people feel for particular transactions.

For context, much of Professor Roth’s work is centered around markets for kidney exchange, but he shows that this notion of repugnant transactions inhibits the existence of markets for goods and services ranging from dwarf tossing to, you guessed it, horse meat. He is careful to point out that the notion of repugnance takes on somewhat of a paternalistic connotation in a lot of cases:

Repugnant is different from, say, disgusting. There are no laws against eating cockroaches in California, because nobody wants to eat cockroaches. The law of supply and demand takes care of that. But the reason there’s a law against eating horse meat in California is because some people would like to eat horse meat, and others think that they’re doing something repugnant.

You can see the full article and Q&A here, and you can read Professor Roth’s original paper on repugnant transactions as a constraint on markets here.

From an economic perspective, the suppression of repugnant transactions is most likely inefficient. The market for horse meat, for example, is most likely a well-functioning market in that many buyers and sellers could come together to voluntarily trade horse meat for money with little impact on outside parties. Well-functioning markets create positive value for society, and, conversely, outlawing such markets destroys value. That said, there are several common arguments that attempt to support the notion that the market for horse meat destroys rather than creates value:

  • Asymmetric information: Some people are concerned that, if horse meat is legal, then people are going to unknowingly be served horse meat. Last time I checked, fraud was still illegal, so I’m not convinced that this concern is justified.
  • Externalities: Some people argue that horse meat should be illegal because it imposes a psychological cost on the people who wouldn’t eat horses but have to think about other people doing so. However, in order for this psychological cost to justify outlawing a market entirely, one would have to believe that the psychological cost of eating horses is greater than the benefits derived from eating horses for the people who would choose to do so. (Horse meat, for the record, is pretty darn healthy.) I’m not even close to convinced that psychological costs stand any chance of winning this tradeoff, but I’m just waiting for people to use this sort of argument to oppose things like gay marriage and whatnot.

I suppose there’s a non-economic animal rights argument to be made in this case, but it’s unclear why horses should enjoy protections that cows, chickens, etc. do not. (Okay, fine, chickens are comparatively dumb creatures, but you get my point.) And yet, horse meat has been illegal in California since 1998, and a national ban on horse meat was passed in 2006. From Professor Roth’s paper:

Why can’t you eat horse or dog meat in a restaurant in California, a state with a population that hails from all over the world, including some places where such meals are appreciated? The answer is that many Californians not only don’t wish to eat horses or dogs themselves, but find it repugnant that anyone else should do so, and they enacted this repugnance into California law by referendum in 1998. Section 598 of the California Penal Code states in part: “[H]orsemeat may not be offered for sale for human consumption. No restaurant, cafe, or other public eating place may offer horsemeat for human consumption.” The measure passed by a margin of 60 to 40 percent with over 4.6 million people voting for it, almost the same majority as elected Gray Davis governor that year (see .

Notice that this law does not seek to protect the safety of consumers by governing the slaughter, sale, preparation and labeling of animals used for food. It is different from laws prohibiting the inhumane treatment of animals, like rules on how farm animals can be raised or slaughtered, or laws prohibiting cock fights, or the recently established (and still contested) ban on selling foie gras in Chicago restaurants (Ruethling, 2006). It is not illegal in California to kill horses; the California law only outlaws such killing “if that person knows or should have known that any part of that horse will be used for human consumption.” The prohibited use is “human consumption,” so it apparently remains legal in California to buy and sell pet food that contains horse meat (although the use of horse meat in pet food has declined in the face of the demand for U.S. horse meat in Europe, for human consumption.)

The repugnance of eating horses is not limited to California. On September 7, 2006, the U.S. House of Representatives passed, by a vote of 351 – 40, and sent to the Senate, H.R. 503: “To … prohibit the shipping, transporting, moving, delivering, receiving, possessing, purchasing, selling, or donation of horses and other equines to be slaughtered for human consumption.” (That bill seems unlikely to be passed into law, however.)

(By my count, there were at most 40 economically-minded people in the House of Representatives.) Technically, Professor Roth’s prediction was correct, but the sale of horse meat was effectively curtailed nonetheless by a measure that barred the USDA from spending funds to inspect horse meat. Before you get too excited about cost savings, however, consider for a second that less horse inspection means more inspection of other animals (since horse meat is a substitute for other meats), and no horse inspection means no exporting of horse meat to Europe and other places.

Therefore, I would consider it a big, perhaps inadvertent, win for economists that this spending ban was recently lifted. On the other hand, it doesn’t appear that the legal change is due to changing attitudes regarding repugnance:

“If plants open up in Oklahoma or Nebraska, you’ll see controversy, litigation, legislative action and basically a very inhospitable environment to operate,” predicted Wayne Pacelle, president and chief executive of The Humane Society of the United States. “Local opposition will emerge and you’ll have tremendous controversy over slaughtering Trigger and Mr. Ed.”

By that logic, doesn’t anyone care about the well-being of Elsie or Foghorn Leghorn? Just curious.

(Yes, I know it’s a donkey and not a horse, but I have to work with what I’ve got. Besides, it seems to be particularly appropriate, given the circumstances, that he appears to be turned off by economics.)

Tags: Markets · Policy

152 responses so far ↓

  • 1 Dan L // Dec 1, 2011 at 10:32 pm

    I think you’re brushing aside the asymmetric information concern a little too easily. Do you not remember the taco bell meat story? If taco bell wants to use horse meat, it wouldn’t be fraud as long as they never SAY that there’s no horse meat in it.

    Also, I think that the emphasis should be on DOG meat rather than horse meat, because the logic is exactly the same, but eating dogs is far more repugnant.

  • 2 econgirl // Dec 1, 2011 at 10:48 pm

    True- the dog situation reminds me that I’m probably a little weird. In general, I don’t have a particular problem with people eating dog, but I wouldn’t eat MY dog…and not just because he’s a chihuahua and would be totally gamey. 🙂

    Regarding your first point, I suppose there is a cost imposed by horse meat legalization in that people who don’t want to eat horse would have to ask before consuming an unidentified meat product. (It’s not that the information is unavailable, it’s just that it’s not necessarily costless to obtain.) Again, I can’t imagine that that tips the tradeoff scale, but I suppose it’s worth noting.

  • 3 David Welker // Dec 2, 2011 at 7:44 pm

    I disagree with your assertion that lifting bans on the consumption of dogs, horses, or trading in markets in human organs can in anyway be properly considered a “win for economists.”

    There is nothing in economics, properly considered, that requires one to take a particular position in favor of allowing all voluntary economic transactions among consenting adults.

    Economics as a field has nothing to say, one way or another, about whether repugnance is a valid reason to outlaw particular economic transactions.

    Let us consider the empathy that people feel towards “man’s best friend,” namely the dog. We consider dogs to be “property,” but unlike other property, we do not allow people to do anything they want to their dog (or other animals). For example, we do not allow dog owners to force their dogs to fight with each other while gambling on the winner occurs, even though this is a voluntary transaction amongst those involved.

    Do you, as an economist, support allowing gambling markets in dog fights? Do you believe that knowledge about economics compels a moral position in favor?

    I assume that, like most people, you would not allow dog fights. But note that dog fights are voluntary economic transactions among consenting adults.

    Surely a dog does not consent when it sold by one owner to another owner for the purposes of slaughter and as a food source. Does this matter? Economics does not have an answer. Nothing in economics says the interests of dogs should or should not be considered. Nothing in economics says how much one should weigh (or not weigh) the feelings of those opposed to slaughtering dogs for food. Nothing in economics says whether we should give dogs a privileged position above other animals (such as cows) or not.

    The idea that consenting adults should be able to do anything they want is a moral argument, not an economic one. One might use insights from economics to talk about this moral issue (just as one might use insights from medicine in talking about whether organ sales should be allowed), but economics cannot resolve ethical or moral disagreement.

  • 4 DB // Dec 2, 2011 at 8:51 pm

    David Welker, “[T]he whole of economics can be reduced to a single lesson, and that lesson can be reduced to a single sentence. The art of economics consists in looking not merely at the immediate but at the longer effects of any act or policy; it consists in tracing the consequences of that policy not merely for one group but for all groups.” — Henry Hazlitt, Economics in One Lesson

  • 5 Dave // Dec 7, 2011 at 2:28 pm

    Perhaps we should listen to the economists about what economics is, not David Welker. Free trade IS an economic argument, despite the fact that you think it’s a moral one.

  • 6 Michael Ryan // Dec 7, 2011 at 4:52 pm

    In Canada (specifically Quebec) horse meat is available and when I do barbecue hamburgers (not often) I usually choose horse-meat over beef because I am diabetic and my blood sugar goes a lot less wonky with horse-meat.

    (Ground pork and lamb and *gasp* veal is also an option over beef, but I like horse-meat the best as a beef hamburger substitute.)

    Horse-meat is not always available and not available in all stores at all times, but its availability does not seem to have caused horse lovers in Quebec some irrepairable harm.

    Mind you travelling to Montreal is like going to Europe without having to cross the Atlantic.

  • 7 David Welker // Dec 8, 2011 at 10:06 pm

    Free trade is not an economic argument. It is an economic phenomenon that sometimes exists and sometimes doesn’t.

    Talking about the consequences (tradeoffs) of free trade is a function of economics.

  • 8 Dave // Dec 9, 2011 at 12:39 pm

    Here’s an analogy for you, DW: Medicine is not a physician’s argument. It is just a thing that sometimes people get and sometimes they don’t. Physicians have no stake in advancing cures for the diseases they diagnose — they just talk about them. Talking about the consequences of medicine is a function of physicians.

  • 9 David Welker // Dec 10, 2011 at 7:07 pm

    Dave,

    And your point?

    I suspect you are trying to make one.

  • 10 Dave // Dec 12, 2011 at 10:04 am

    You are trying to argue that free markets are not a win for economists because they are agnostic on the issue — they don’t purport to believe they are good or bad, they just talk about them. I think you are wrong. That’s my point.

  • 11 David Welker // Dec 13, 2011 at 1:36 pm

    Dave,

    I see.

    Maybe most economists prefer “free” markets in most goods and services as an empirical matter. Just as most probably advocate for free trade as an empirical matter. (Although, we already are running into a very difficult definitional issue. Just what is a free market? If we regulate banking so that banks cannot become over-leveraged or too big to fail, do we still have a free market? If we regulate food production to avoid tainted food, do we still have a free market?)

    I would assume that most economists also are in favor of laws against murder as an empirical matter.

    Both judgments are normative. You should be careful to distinguish the more objective knowledge that economists actually contribute to society (i.e. a better understanding of tradeoffs) and their normative preferences (i.e. what policy choices we should make, given those tradeoffs).

  • 12 holmegm // Dec 13, 2011 at 2:24 pm

    Almost all laws are based on “repugnance”.

    It is repugnant to defraud someone, so we outlaw it. It’s not enough to say that “well, if *you* don’t want to defraud, then don’t.” We ban it for everybody.

    It’s repugnant to torture kittens to death. So we ban it. Not only do I not want to do it, I don’t want you to do it either. So I organize and we ban you from doing it. We don’t care that you and some others want to do it, that it might be a net boon for the economy somehow.

  • 13 Faza (TCM) // Dec 13, 2011 at 7:16 pm

    It’s interesting to see how some issues generate an emotional response to an attempt at rational evaluation.

    The horse meat issue is actually a good example, since the ban on trade in horse meat for human consumption is indefensible from a rational position. Given that there is no fundamental difference between the slaughter of horses for non-human consumption (pet food, say), nor is there a fundamental difference between eating a horse or a cow, the only reason to make trade in horse meat for human consumption illegal is that some people don’t like the idea.

    The economics of such intangibles as the feelings of those who believe humans shouldn’t eat horses or the satisfaction derived from eating horse meat are decidedly tricky, so they are probably best avoided. I put to you a different angle to consider: to what extent should somebody be able to restrict another’s freedom, in the absence of clearly identifiable social benefits?

    Most examples presented in the comments fail to address the issue, because they concern matters where other considerations are at stake (the closest fit would be laws against animal cruelty which – for the most part – is not a market issue; dog and cock fights are, to my best knowledge, illegal regardless of whether they are undertaken for profit or as a “hobby”). Such considerations do not apply in this case, since neither slaughter or eating of animals is in itself considered repugnant.

    We thus have a clearly lost benefit (the value derived from trade in horse meat for human consumption), no clearly identifiable gain (I doubt that most people give much thought to the eating of horses unless directly confronted with the issue) and no clearly identifiable social interest, other than a majority opinion. Of course, the problem with majority opinions is that the majority can oft times be in favour of some pretty nasty stuff, so that in itself cannot be considered unquestionably valuable.

    So, why?

  • 14 Faza (TCM) // Dec 13, 2011 at 7:19 pm

    Edit:
    Lost a “human” in the second paragraph, which should read:

    “there is no fundamental difference between the slaughter of horses for human and non-human consumption”

  • 15 discount Christian Louboutin Shelley 90mm Black&Red sale and outlet // Nov 18, 2012 at 9:04 pm

    We offer the Discount Christian Louboutin Shoes here covering complete collection of stunning Shoes, Boots, Sandals. our site is http://www.discountchristian-louboutinsale.tk
    discount Christian Louboutin Shelley 90mm Black&Red sale and outlet

  • 16 CircumNews Legit // Nov 14, 2013 at 3:51 pm

    I like what you guys are up to. Such smart work and reporting! Carry on with the excellent works guys. I have incorporated you guys to my blogroll. I think it will improve the value of my site. 🙂

  • 17 Jeff // Nov 15, 2013 at 7:05 pm

    DB – Funny you should quote that sentence because Henry Hazlitt is one of the great masters of ignoring the longer-term consequences of market failures and consumer demand loss caused by free market activities.

    The 1946 book “Economics in one Lesson” could just as easily be titled, “Why the South Korea and Japanese experiments are doomed to fail.”

  • 18 Selena Gomez Songs // Jun 12, 2014 at 3:32 am

    Ahaa, its fastidious dialogue about this post at this place at this website, I have read all that, so at this
    time me also commenting at this place.

    my page – Selena Gomez Songs

  • 19 Hilario // Jan 28, 2015 at 7:36 pm

    Link exchange is nothing else however it is simply placing the other person’s weblog link on your page at suitable place and other person will also do similar
    for you.

    site [Hilario]

  • 20 Online sex forum // Dec 2, 2015 at 3:40 pm

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 21 animal sex showflat // Dec 2, 2015 at 6:22 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 22 online viagra // Dec 20, 2015 at 12:36 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 23 sex // Dec 20, 2015 at 1:38 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 24 online viagra // Dec 20, 2015 at 5:09 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 25 online viagra // Dec 22, 2015 at 6:16 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 26 Vern online gambling // Dec 22, 2015 at 11:53 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 27 sex // Dec 23, 2015 at 8:20 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 28 online gambling // Dec 24, 2015 at 3:02 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 29 online gambling // Jan 9, 2016 at 1:45 pm

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 30 sex // Jan 10, 2016 at 10:41 am

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 31 chuan sex tour // Jan 12, 2016 at 2:18 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 32 online gambling // Jan 12, 2016 at 9:33 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 33 chuan sex tour // Jan 15, 2016 at 11:24 pm

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 34 online viagra // Jan 16, 2016 at 10:18 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 35 online gambling // Jan 27, 2016 at 2:50 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 36 online gambling // Jan 28, 2016 at 1:29 am

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 37 viagra // Feb 4, 2016 at 4:12 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 38 adult sex // Feb 4, 2016 at 9:06 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 39 child sex // Feb 4, 2016 at 4:17 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 40 child sex // Feb 5, 2016 at 4:38 pm

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 41 Nelle // Feb 8, 2016 at 8:40 am

    %The substantial intensity parts of this workout are what they call sprint intervals’, these intervals are gauged by either time or distance. What is interval training?

    Check out my weblog … interval training routines [Nelle]

  • 42 hiit training workout // Feb 15, 2016 at 5:52 pm

    %”Beowulf”
    For Time:
    Row 1,000 Meters on the Concept 2 rower He now has a workout worthy of his name.
    “Beowulf”
    In a legendary time of Heroes the mighty warrior Beowulf was the most prolific
    of all.

    Also visit my blog post – hiit training workout

  • 43 sex // Feb 25, 2016 at 1:20 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 44 コーチ COACH 財布 長財布 レビューを書くと送料無料 F53643 ブルーマルチカラー コーチ パッチワム// Mar 28, 2016 at 12:02 pm

    Pretty component to content. I just stumbled upon your site and in accession capital to say that I get in fact enjoyed account your blog posts. Anyway I’ll be subscribing on your augment and even I fulfillment you get admission to constantly quickly.

  • 45 【ポイント13倍相当】山本漢方製薬株式会社 キダチ アロエ茶 8g×24包×20個セット【RCP〠// Mar 28, 2016 at 7:52 pm

    Hey! I understand this is sort of off-topic but I had to ask. Does running a well-established website such as yours require a lot of work? I am completely new to blogging however I do write in my journal every day. I’d like to start a blog so I can share my own experience and feelings online. Please let me know if you have any recommendations or tips for brand new aspiring bloggers. Thankyou!

  • 46 プラス 金属クリップタイプ ネームタッグ用金具[金属・樹脂クリップタイプ・吊り下だ// Mar 30, 2016 at 12:42 pm

    Simply wish to say your article is as astonishing. The clarity in your post is simply excellent and i could assume you are an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please continue the rewarding work.

  • 47 ソファ 2人掛け ナチュラル モダン 二人掛け布ソファ 天然木ウッド ソファ 木製ソファ ã‚·ã // Mar 31, 2016 at 10:03 am

    What’s Going down i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It absolutely helpful and it has aided me out loads. I am hoping to contribute & assist other customers like its helped me. Good job.

  • 48 ケー・スイス K-Swiss Womens Tubes 100 A Black/Pink/Blue 女性 シューズ 靴 ランニングシューズ ウォーキングシュー゠// Apr 3, 2016 at 5:10 am

    Hello there, simply turned into alert to your blog thru Google, and found that it’s truly informative. I am going to be careful for brussels. I will be grateful if you happen to proceed this in future. Numerous people might be benefited out of your writing. Cheers!

  • 49 ≪送料無料≫【国内正規品】SK-II ホワイトニングパワースポッツスペシャリスト (美容 // Apr 3, 2016 at 1:48 pm

    You really make it seem really easy along with your presentation but I in finding this topic to be actually something which I feel I would never understand. It kind of feels too complex and extremely broad for me. I’m looking ahead on your subsequent publish, I will attempt to get the grasp of it!

  • 50 crunchbase.com/person/rachel-polver/ // Apr 10, 2016 at 1:03 pm

    Thank you for some other informative web site. Where else may I am getting that
    type of information written in such a perfect means? I have a mission that I am simply now operating on, and I have been on the look out for such info.

  • 51 advertisers // May 1, 2016 at 5:54 am

    Thank you a bunch for sharing this with all folks you actually understand what you’re speaking about!
    Bookmarked. Please also discuss with my web site =).
    We could have a hyperlink trade agreement among us

  • 52 childsex // May 7, 2016 at 4:54 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 53 sex guide to singapore // May 8, 2016 at 1:43 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 54 childsex // May 11, 2016 at 5:09 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 55 propertysales // May 12, 2016 at 11:48 am

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 56 Girl We Got A Good Thing mp3 download // May 29, 2016 at 10:12 pm

    %The answer is so simple because a very good thing needs some efforts in your side to make its more precious for you. You think if its wish then why we take some efforts.

    my blog post Girl We Got A Good Thing mp3 download

  • 57 singapore sex // Jun 23, 2016 at 12:20 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 58 sgpropertyportfolio // Jun 23, 2016 at 12:23 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 59 sgpropertyportfolio // Jul 1, 2016 at 9:41 am

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 60 sex // Jul 2, 2016 at 7:21 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 61 sgpropertyportfolio // Jul 27, 2016 at 7:02 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 62 sex // Aug 4, 2016 at 4:52 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 63 sex guide to singapore // Aug 4, 2016 at 12:04 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 64 online gambling // Aug 23, 2016 at 1:11 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 65 viagra // Aug 23, 2016 at 9:52 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 66 dog sex park // Aug 26, 2016 at 3:33 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 67 online gambling park // Aug 26, 2016 at 3:59 pm

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 68 online gambling park // Aug 27, 2016 at 6:11 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 69 sex park // Aug 27, 2016 at 4:12 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 70 sex park // Aug 30, 2016 at 6:52 pm

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 71 viagra // Sep 2, 2016 at 6:49 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 72 child sex // Sep 3, 2016 at 8:42 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 73 viagra // Sep 3, 2016 at 1:38 pm

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 74 animal sex // Sep 4, 2016 at 1:25 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 75 animal sex // Sep 5, 2016 at 11:00 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 76 High Park Residences // Sep 7, 2016 at 11:00 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 77 High Park Residences // Sep 7, 2016 at 2:22 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 78 High Park Residences // Sep 7, 2016 at 5:14 pm

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 79 High Park Residences // Sep 8, 2016 at 12:52 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 80 online viagra // Sep 21, 2016 at 1:50 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 81 online gambling // Sep 21, 2016 at 4:51 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 82 sex // Sep 21, 2016 at 6:37 pm

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 83 online gambling // Sep 21, 2016 at 9:10 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 84 chuan sex tour // Sep 23, 2016 at 5:47 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 85 online gambling // Sep 23, 2016 at 10:16 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 86 sex // Sep 23, 2016 at 11:20 am

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 87 online viagra // Sep 23, 2016 at 1:42 pm

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 88 sex // Sep 23, 2016 at 8:03 pm

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 89 sex // Sep 23, 2016 at 11:20 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 90 sex // Sep 24, 2016 at 4:27 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 91 online viagra // Sep 24, 2016 at 4:06 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 92 chuan sex tour // Sep 26, 2016 at 8:44 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 93 online gambling // Sep 26, 2016 at 1:04 pm

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 94 online viagra // Sep 26, 2016 at 2:08 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 95 chuan sex tour // Sep 26, 2016 at 4:27 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 96 online viagra // Sep 26, 2016 at 11:14 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 97 chuan sex tour // Sep 27, 2016 at 8:19 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 98 sex park // Oct 1, 2016 at 5:07 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 99 dog sex park // Oct 1, 2016 at 9:47 am

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 100 online gambling park // Oct 11, 2016 at 3:01 am

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 101 chuan sex tour // Oct 11, 2016 at 11:10 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 102 online viagra // Oct 12, 2016 at 7:45 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 103 sex // Oct 12, 2016 at 1:06 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 104 park place for sex // Oct 13, 2016 at 12:11 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 105 online viagra // Oct 17, 2016 at 8:44 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 106 chuan sex tour // Oct 17, 2016 at 11:00 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 107 animal sex // Oct 17, 2016 at 7:15 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 108 online viagra // Oct 17, 2016 at 9:43 pm

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 109 animal sex // Oct 18, 2016 at 8:02 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 110 online viagra // Oct 18, 2016 at 9:00 am

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 111 Sex tour // Oct 18, 2016 at 9:02 am

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 112 viagra park // Oct 21, 2016 at 6:01 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 113 online viagra // Oct 21, 2016 at 8:18 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 114 sex // Oct 21, 2016 at 1:16 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 115 sex // Oct 21, 2016 at 3:25 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 116 animal sex // Oct 21, 2016 at 5:47 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 117 animal sex // Oct 22, 2016 at 6:34 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 118 child sex // Oct 22, 2016 at 7:36 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 119 animal sex // Oct 22, 2016 at 7:38 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 120 online gambling // Oct 24, 2016 at 6:49 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 121 sex // Oct 24, 2016 at 11:31 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 122 online viagra // Oct 25, 2016 at 1:29 am

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 123 Sex tour // Oct 25, 2016 at 11:58 am

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 124 online gambling // Oct 25, 2016 at 2:18 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 125 animal sex // Oct 26, 2016 at 3:00 pm

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 126 online sex // Nov 1, 2016 at 12:44 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 127 online sex // Nov 2, 2016 at 7:15 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 128 online sex // Nov 2, 2016 at 10:33 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 129 online sex // Nov 2, 2016 at 4:35 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 130 online sex // Nov 2, 2016 at 5:31 pm

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 131 online sex // Nov 2, 2016 at 7:50 pm

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 132 online sex // Nov 5, 2016 at 6:18 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 133 online sex // Nov 5, 2016 at 12:09 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 134 online sex // Nov 6, 2016 at 3:19 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 135 online sex // Nov 6, 2016 at 7:26 am

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 136 online sex // Nov 6, 2016 at 7:22 pm

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 137 online sex // Nov 12, 2016 at 7:42 am

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 138 online sex // Nov 12, 2016 at 12:45 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 139 online sex // Nov 12, 2016 at 3:56 pm

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 140 online sex // Nov 14, 2016 at 5:48 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 141 sex Show // Nov 19, 2016 at 5:42 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 142 sex Show // Nov 19, 2016 at 8:46 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 143 sex Show // Nov 20, 2016 at 4:07 am

    Currently it sounds like Expression Engine is the preferred blogging platform available right now. (from what Ive read) Is that what youre using on your blog?

  • 144 sex Show // Nov 20, 2016 at 6:11 am

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 145 sex Show // Nov 20, 2016 at 11:41 am

    Im impressed, I have to admit. Seldom do I come across a blog thats both equally educative and amusing, and let me tell you, youve hit the nail on the head. The problem is something which too few people are speaking intelligently about. Im very happy I came across this in my search for something regarding this.

  • 146 sex Show // Nov 20, 2016 at 9:08 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 147 sex Show // Nov 21, 2016 at 5:36 am

    Apple now has Rhapsody as an app, which is a great start, but it is currently hampered by the inability to store locally on your iPod, and has a dismal 64kbps bit rate. If this changes, then it will somewhat negate this advantage for the Zune, but the 10 songs per month will still be a big plus in Zune Pass favor.

  • 148 sex Show // Nov 21, 2016 at 1:37 pm

    Youre so cool! I do not believe I have read through something like this before. So nice to find someone with unique thoughts on this issue. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This website is one thing thats needed on the internet, someone with some originality!

  • 149 sex Show // Nov 22, 2016 at 10:26 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my web site so i came to return the favor.Im trying to find things to enhance my web site!I suppose its ok to use some of your ideas!!

  • 150 sex Show // Nov 23, 2016 at 4:21 am

    I was recommended this blog by my cousin. I am not sure whether this post is written by him as nobody else know such detailed about my trouble. Youre incredible! Thanks!

  • 151 sex Show // Nov 23, 2016 at 5:55 am

    Hi, i think that i saw you visited my site thus i came to return the favor.Im attempting to find things to improve my website!I suppose its ok to use a few of your ideas!!

  • 152 http://Maluyaja.imgur.com/f6chs // Dec 6, 2016 at 8:51 pm

    %The hike from the canyon rim to the floor of the valley and back up again can be tackled by most relatively fit people – even the novice hiker. Make no mistake, it is a tough hike but you dont need to be an athlete to complete it successfully.

    my site … canyoning frankrijk [http://Maluyaja.imgur.com/f6chs]

Leave a Comment